In every historical era, starting from Chinese antiquity till China’s modern history, Chinese medicine principles have received philosophical or religious influences and have been modified to serve the interests of the ruling forces of each era. For example in antiquity, the Qin Dynasty promoted Legalism over the Confucian principles, whereas in the 20th century we have the new TCM of the Communists, molded according to the Soviet ideology.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the giant steps of medicine in the West in one hand, and the huge death toll of the Plague in China on the other hand, led to a long-lasting conflict between eastern and western medicine advocates. As an outcome, most of Chinese medicine principles have been removed or westernized in order to keep up with the ‘modern style’ medicine and evade extinction.
Finally, when it comes to ancient medical texts, there is always the problem of wrong copying over the ages, falsification, or the problem of properly translating the Chinese ideograms, the exact meaning of which has been altered throughout the different historical eras.